Antibody-Mediated Clearance of Brain Amyloid-β: Mechanisms of Action, Effects of Natural and Monoclonal Anti-Aβ Antibodies, and Downstream Effects.
Journal of Alzheimer's disease reports
Immunotherapeutic efforts to slow the clinical progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by lowering brain amyloid-β (Aβ) have included Aβ vaccination, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) products, and anti-Aβ monoclonal antibodies. Neither Aβ vaccination nor IVIG slowed disease progression. Despite conflicting phase III results, the monoclonal antibody Aducanumab received Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval for treatment of AD in June 2021. The only treatments unequivocally demonstrated to slow AD progression to date are the monoclonal antibodies Lecanemab and Donanemab. Lecanemab received FDA approval in January 2023 based on phase II results showing lowering of PET-detectable Aβ; phase III results released at that time indicated slowing of disease progression. Topline results released in May 2023 for Donanemab's phase III trial revealed that primary and secondary end points had been met. Antibody binding to Aβ facilitates its clearance from the brain via multiple mechanisms including promoting its microglial phagocytosis, activating complement, dissolving fibrillar Aβ, and binding of antibody-Aβ complexes to blood-brain barrier receptors. Antibody binding to Aβ in peripheral blood may also promote cerebral efflux of Aβ by a peripheral sink mechanism. According to the amyloid hypothesis, for Aβ targeting to slow AD progression, it must decrease downstream neuropathological processes including tau aggregation and phosphorylation and (possibly) inflammation and oxidative stress. This review discusses antibody-mediated mechanisms of Aβ clearance, findings in AD trials involving Aβ vaccination, IVIG, and anti-Aβ monoclonal antibodies, downstream effects reported in those trials, and approaches which might improve the Aβ-clearing ability of monoclonal antibodies.
Loeffler DA. Antibody-mediated clearance of brain amyloid-β: mechanisms of action, effects of natural and monoclonal anti-aβ antibodies, and downstream effects. J Alzheimers Dis Rep. 2023 Aug 14;7(1):873-899. doi: 10.3233/ADR-230025. PMID: 37662616.