Novel biomarkers in the prognosis of patients with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease.
Revista Portuguesa de Cardiologia (Engl Ed)
Biomarkers have a variety of clinical applications in multiple stages of diagnosis and therapy. Troponin T and brain natriuretic peptide are the best-known in the cardiovascular field, but experimental studies have identified new biomarkers with potential clinical value. In this article, novel biomarkers of kidney injury are investigated in the context of their relationship with atherosclerotic coronary disease. This review was carried out through a search in the PubMed database using as keywords each biomarker to be studied with the descriptor (DECS/MeSH) "Myocardial Infarction", and the keywords "coronary" and "cardiovascular", using the Boolean operator "AND". After the selection, 24 articles published between 2003 and 2017 were identified for the review. Eight biomarkers were investigated: neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), syndecan-1, interleukin-6 (IL-6), galectin-3, and the vascular cell adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Most identified articles were experimental studies, studies on human subjects having few participants. There are several promising biomarkers in the setting of coronary disease. The main evidence available in the literature suggests that elevated NGAL levels are associated with better prognosis after cardiac arrest and with comorbid kidney injury; elevated FGF23 is associated with coronary artery disease severity; TIMP-2 protects against coronary artery disease; increased expression of syndecan-1 is observed in myocardial infarction (MI) and protects against an exacerbated inflammatory response; IL-6 is associated with atherosclerotic disease and major cardiovascular outcomes; galectin-3 correlates with adverse clinical events post-MI; and elevated ICAM-1/VCAM-1 levels are associated with risk of coronary disease. Further studies are required to better investigate the role of each of these biomarkers in both stable coronary disease and acute coronary syndrome.
Freitas IA, Lima NA, Silva GBD Jr, Castro RL Jr, Patel P, Lima CCV, Lino DODC. Novel biomarkers in the prognosis of patients with atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. Rev Port Cardiol (Engl Ed). 2020 Nov;39(11):667-672. English, Portuguese. doi: 10.1016/j.repc.2020.05.010. Epub 2020 Oct 24. PMID: 33239161.