The emerging story of acute lymphoblastic leukemia among the Latin American population - biological and clinical implications.
Higher incidence rates and poor outcomes have been reported among Latin American patients (Latinos) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Distinct patterns in recent genomic studies allude to a predisposing genetic component. In this review, we critically examine the increasing amount of empirical information on the epidemiology, outcomes and genomics of Latinos with ALL. We discuss the immense diversity within the Latino community and varying definitions of what is considered Latino, which pose an epidemiological challenge. Environmental factors have been evaluated as possible predisposing factors in the development of ALL but studies have produced conflicting results. In this review we describe chromosomal abnormalities and the specific genomic landscape in Latinos with ALL and their association with unfavorable prognosis, focusing on the higher frequency of Philadelphia chromosome-Like ALL. Recent data suggest an association between polymorphisms that are commonly found in indigenous Americans and high rates of ALL. The review compares the distribution of ALL throughout the various countries in Latin America in an attempt to shed some epidemiological light on the genetic ancestry of ALL. We additionally identify areas where research is warranted in efforts toward the advent of novel targeted agents that are relevant in improving outcomes within the Latino community.
Quiroz E, Aldoss I, Pullarkat V, Rego E, Marcucci G, Douer D. The emerging story of acute lymphoblastic leukemia among the Latin American population - biological and clinical implications. Blood Rev. 2019 Jan;33:98-105. doi: 10.1016/j.blre.2018.08.002. Epub 2018 Aug 14. PMID: 30126753.