Venous thromboembolism with renal infarct due to paradoxical embolism.
BMJ Case Reports
Paradoxical thromboembolism has variable presentation depending on site of embolisation. An African-American man in his 40s presented with severe abdominal pain, watery stools and exertional dyspnoea. At presentation, he was tachycardic and hypertensive. Labwork showed elevated creatinine with unknown baseline. Urinalysis showed pyuria. A CT scan was unremarkable. He was admitted with working diagnosis of acute viral gastroenteritis and prerenal acute kidney injury and supportive care was instituted. On day 2, the pain migrated to left flank. Renal artery duplex ruled out renovascular hypertension but showed a lack of distal renal perfusion. MRI confirmed a renal infarct with renal artery thrombosis. Transoesophageal echocardiogram confirmed a patent foramen ovale. Simultaneous arterial and venous thrombosis require hypercoagulable workup, including investigation for malignancy, infection or thrombophilia. Rarely, venous thromboembolism can directly cause arterial thrombosis by 'paradoxical thromboembolism'. Given the rarity of renal infarct, high index of clinical suspicion is necessary.
Aggarwal N, Rector D, Lazar N, Bukovec F. Venous thromboembolism with renal infarct due to paradoxical embolism. BMJ Case Rep. 2023 Mar 28;16(3):e252322. doi: 10.1136/bcr-2022-252322. PMID: 36977511.