Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography Parameters of the Retina in SARS-CoV-2 Recovered Subjects.

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INTRODUCTION: This study aims to evaluate retinochoroidal optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) parameters in patients recovered from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2).

METHODS: This study was an observational study that included 80 subjects being discharged after having negative reports on the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test for SARS-CoV-2 to evaluate OCTA parameters of the retina. The subjects underwent an ophthalmic evaluation that included best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), intraocular pressure (IOP), color vision (CV), contrast sensitivity (CS), and optical coherence tomography (OCT) parameters. OCTA was done for all patients and was evaluated for foveal avascular zone (FAZ) area, perimeter, and circularity index, and vessel density (VD) in superficial capillary plexus (SCP), deep capillary plexus (DCP), outer retina (OR), outer retina chorio-capillaries (ORCC), chorio-capillaries (CC), and choroid (C) using 3 x 3 mm scans. The OCTA parameters were compared with normative data of the Indian population for various parameters in question.

RESULTS: The subjects included 54/80 (67.5%) males and 26/80 (32.5%) females having a mean age of 52.40 ± 15.71 (18-60) years. The systemic evaluation revealed 38.75% of subjects had hypertension, 30% had diabetes, 20% had kidney disease, 5% had tuberculosis, and 3.75% had coronary artery disease. The mean distance BCVA was logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (LogMAR) (1.17 ± 0.22), mean IOP was 17.0 ± 4.0 mmHg, mean CS was 2.13 ± 0.36, 50.62% of subjects had normal CV on Farnsworth test while 47% had tritanopia, and none of the subjects had red-green CV defect on Ishihara plates. The OCT scan was normal in 90% of eyes while the posterior vitreous detachment was seen in 4% of eyes, broad vitreomacular adhesion in 2.5% of eyes, and the globally adherent epiretinal membrane was seen in 2.5% of eyes. The mean central macular thickness (CMT) measured 245.14 ± 28.41 micrometers. The mean FAZ area measured 0.37 ± 0.15 mm

CONCLUSIONS: The SARS-CoV-2 recovered subjects have a reduced VD in retinochoroidal layers from COVID-19, an underlying systemic disease, or both. The CS values fall within normal limits. Several subjects show tritanopia on the Farnsworth test but no red-green CV defect on Ishihara plates.





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