Confusion, Hallucinations, and Primary Polydipsia: A Rare Presentation of Neurosarcoidosis.
Neurosarcoidosis is a rare manifestation of sarcoidosis that can exhibit a variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms and can present independently of pulmonary or other systemic symptoms. This is the case of a 51-year-old African American male who presented with recurrent episodes of auditory and visual hallucinations, confusion, seizures that did not respond to antiepileptics, and recent-onset primary polydipsia. In the emergency department, he did not have meningeal signs, focal neurologic deficits, or a fever. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain demonstrated diffuse meningeal enhancement. The patient underwent a lumbar puncture (LP), with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis notably revealing an elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), an elevated CD4:CD8 ratio, and a negative infectious panel, while computed tomography (CT) imaging showed bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy. He also had an endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) with biopsy which did not reveal granulomas. Although sarcoidosis requires granulomas for a definite diagnosis, studies and symptoms were consistent with neurosarcoidosis, and this can suggest that the disease was isolated to the central nervous system (CNS). This case highlights the need for further understanding of psychiatric symptoms as a sign of isolated neurosarcoidosis.
Alakhras H, Goodman BD, Zimmer M, Aguinaga S. Confusion, hallucinations, and primary polydipsia: a rare presentation of neurosarcoidosis. Cureus. 2022 Jan 28;14(1):e21687. doi: 10.7759/cureus.21687. PMID: 35237482.