Independent Risk Factors for Thromboembolic Events in High-Risk Patients With Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy.

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Current problems in cardiology


Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TCM) is characteristically associated with left ventricular apical ballooning and regional wall motion abnormalities that predispose to the formation of left ventricular (LV) thrombi and subsequent thromboembolic events (VTE). There is limited data about the risk factors of developing stroke in the absence of LV thrombi in patients with TCM. Identify risk factors that predispose patients with TCM to develop VTE and stroke. We retrospectively reviewed all patients admitted with a primary diagnosis of stress induced or Takotsubo cardiomyopathy at a large tertiary care center from 2005 to 2019. Patients who met the echocardiographic criteria of TCM, had resolution of WMA on repeat echocardiogram, did not have coronary artery disease if angiography was performed and survived for > 3 months after index presentation were included in the analysis. Patients were followed for up to a period of 1 year. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify predictors of thromboembolism. Among the 400 patients who presented with TCM, 146 patients were included in the analysis. A total of 13 patients (8.9%) had documented thromboembolic events. Patients with VTE more often had Atrial fibrillation (30.8% vs 6.8%, P = 0.018), higher LV mass (224.5g vs 184g, P = 0.04), lower EF on presentation (31.5% vs 40%, P = 0.011) and were less likely to have undergone coronary angiography following diagnosis (23.1% vs 54.9%, P = 0.04). On multivariate analysis, atrial fibrillation (OR 9.15, CI 1.15-72.70) and low ejection fraction on admission (OR 0.88, CI 0.81-0.97) were independent risk factors for the development of VTE. Atrial fibrillation and low ejection fraction on presentation were associated with higher risk of developing thromboembolic events in patients with TCM.


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