COVID-19 and the Endocrine System: A Review of the Current Information and Misinformation.

Samir Ahmed Mirza
Abdul Ahad Ehsan Sheikh
Michaela Barbera
Zainab Ijaz, Beaumont Health Resident
Muhammad Ali Javaid
Rahul Shekhar
Suman Pal
Abu Baker Sheikh


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection primarily involves the respiratory system but has many noteworthy extra pulmonary manifestations as well. We write this review to highlight the basis of some pathophysiological mechanisms of COVID-19 infection-induced endocrine dysfunction. Different scientific databases and institutional websites were searched to collect and consolidate the most up-to-date data relating to COVID-19 infection and endocrine systems. Hypopituitarism, central diabetes insipidus, SIADH, thyroid abnormalities, hyperglycemia, adrenal insufficiency, orchitis and alteration in sperm morphology have been reported in case reports of patients with COVID-19 infection. Data focusing on COVID-19 vaccination was also searched to summarize the effect, if any, on the endocrine system. Endocrinopathies noted post COVID-19 vaccination, including cases of adrenal hemorrhage, new onset Type II Diabetes Mellitus and subacute thyroiditis, are also discussed in this review. This review calls attention to the misinformation relating to COVID-19 vaccination with supposed endocrine effects such as infertility and problems with pregnancy. Rebutting these misconceptions can help increase compliance and maximize COVID-19 vaccination to the public.