Neurophysiological Markers of Internet Gaming Disorder: A Literature Review of Electroencephalography Studies.
Pathological online gaming is a relatively newer psychiatric disorder. It is the second behavioral addiction (after internet gambling disorder) included in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Psychiatric Disorders (DSM), 5th edition as "Internet Gaming Disorder" (IGD). Recent research is showing high morbidity associated with IGD, thus encouraging researchers to find valid and reliable biomarkers of IGD. So that, early diagnosis and proper treatment could limit the high disability level accompanying excessive online gaming. As electroencephalography (EEG) is a non-invasive and relatively easily available diagnostic technique, we aimed at collecting EEG studies that investigated EEG changes associated with IGD, with a specific focus on finding diagnostic and predictive neurophysiological biomarkers of IGD. We searched PubMed and Google Scholar for EEG studies of IGD. We eliminated those EEG studies that were not focused on finding biomarkers. Scale for the Assessment of Narrative Review Articles (SANRA) is followed in the writing of this review article. Our results showed that increased slow-wave resting-state activity and reduced P300 and N100 can serve as useful IGD diagnostic markers of IGD. Moreover, increased resting-state theta activity can be a predictive biomarker of IGD. Lastly, increased late low potentials (LLPs) can be specific trait markers of cue-induced cravings in IGD.
Kashif S Sr, Pandey S, Warriach ZI. Neurophysiological Markers of Internet Gaming Disorder: A Literature Review of Electroencephalography Studies. Cureus. 2021 Sep 10;13(9):e17866. doi: 10.7759/cureus.17866. PMID: 34660067; PMCID: PMC8504875.