National Trends of Tobacco, Alcohol, and Drug Use in Patients Admitted With Acute Myocardial Infarction.

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Cardiovascular revascularization medicine


BACKGROUND: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a significant health and economic burden in the US. Tobacco, alcohol, and drug use are established risk factors. We sought to evaluate the national trend of use of each substance in patients admitted with AMI.

METHODS: We used the National Inpatient Sample between 2005 and 2017. We included adult patients hospitalized with AMI. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth and Tenth Revisions codes were used to define tobacco, alcohol, cocaine, opioid, cannabis and other drug use. Trends of each substance use were assessed using multivariable Poisson regression, and were expressed as annual percent change (APC) with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

RESULTS: A total of 10,796,844 hospitalizations with AMI were included. Among all substances used, tobacco was the most common (32.7%), followed by alcohol (3.2%). Between 2005 and 2017, the prevalence ratio of tobacco use increased from 21.5% to 44.5% with an APC +6.2% (95%CI 6.2%-6.2%). Tobacco users had more percutaneous coronary intervention (41%vs25%) and coronary artery bypass surgery (6.9%vs4.9%), p < 0.001. Further, there were positive trends in alcohol (APC +3.1%; 95%CI 3.0%-3.2%), opioid (APC +9.0%; 95%CI 8.7%-9.2%), cannabis (APC + 7.2; 95% CI 7%-7.4%), and combined all drug use (+7.1%; 95%CI 7%-7.2%). Meanwhile, there was a slight negative trend in cocaine use.

CONCLUSIONS: This analysis outlines the national trends of substance use in patients admitted with AMI and reveals an increasing prevalence of tobacco use, alcohol and drug use. More effective cessation measures are necessary to reduce the risk for AMI and its burden on the healthcare system and economy.



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