The impact of therapeutic mediastinal radiation on stent healing in cancer patients: An optical coherence tomography study.

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Journal of Clinical Oncology


Background: Cancer is a prothrombotic and proinflammatory state. Understanding stent healing in cancer patients could modify the approach to antiplatelet regimen and facilitate cancer treatment. Mediastinal radiation therapy brings an additional layer of complexity to an already challenging clinical scenario in cancer patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We sought to compare stent healing patterns with and without a history of mediastinal radiation therapy using optical coherence tomography (OCT) data. Methods: All cancer patients that underwent PCI and follow-up OCT less than 12 months post-PCI between 2009-2018 were retrospectively identified from our institutional cardiac catheterization laboratory registry. Stent healing, which was defined by a combination of stent and strut coverage, apposition, expansion, in-stent restenosis, and neo-intimal hyperplasia, was compared among 2 groups of oncological PCI patients: those with and without a history of mediastinal radiation therapy. Differences among the two categories were assessed using linear-effect models. Results: There were 86 cancer patients who received PCI with follow-up OCT within 12 months. Of these, 22% received mediastinal radiation. There was no statistical difference in baseline characteristics (hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, etc.) between the two studied groups. In the non-radiation group, 59% were late stage or advanced cancer patients, while 63% of patients in the radiation group were advanced cancer patients. Stent healing was similar among those who had received radiation therapy and those who had not (Table). Conclusions: A history of mediastinal radiation does not appear to affect early stent healing within 1 year of PCI. Given stent healing appears to be similar with or without radiation, dual anti-platelet therapy regimens may not need to change based on radiation exposure alone. Future studies should address the duration of dual antiplatelet regimens and long-term outcomes (i.e. in-stent restenosis) based on stent healing properties.




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