Title

Epstein-Barr Virus Induced Haemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis.

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

5-5-2021

Publication Title

BMJ Case Reports

Abstract

Haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare condition of uncontrolled immune activation as a result of an inherited genetic defect or in response to malignancy, autoimmune disease, rheumatological disease, AIDS infection or post-transplant immunosuppression. Described here is the case of a 19-year-old Caucasian man who presented with complaints of worsening fever, new-onset jaundice and lethargy after failing treatment for suspected infectious mononucleosis. Physical examination was significant for fever and splenomegaly while laboratory results revealed transaminitis, cytopaenia, indirect hyperbilirubinaemia and elevated ferritin, raising the likelihood of both autoimmune haemolytic anaemia and HLH. He tested positive for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and bone marrow biopsy revealed hypercellular marrow with haemophagocytosis and no evidence of malignancy. High dose steroids were initiated with significant improvement in haemoglobin, resulting in a final diagnosis of HLH secondary to acute EBV infection. The patient was discharged on continued high-dose prednisone with planned taper and consideration of outpatient rituximab therapy for 4 weeks. High clinical suspicion and prompt evaluation were critical to early treatment and decreased morbidity.

Volume

14

Issue

5

First Page

e241348

DOI

10.1136/bcr-2020-241348

ISSN

1757-790X

PubMed ID

33952568

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