Infectious causes of acute pancreatitis: A systematic review.
Pancreatology : Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology
BACKGROUND: Infectious etiologies of acute pancreatitis (AP) are rare and include viruses, bacteria, mycobacteria, parasites, and fungi. We aimed to conduct a comprehensive review on infectious etiologies of AP analyzing the frequency, clinical features, and outcomes of individuals presenting with this condition.
METHODS: Eligible articles reporting on AP attributed to infectious etiologies were included. A comprehensive literature search of PubMed from time of inception and until September 6,2019 was performed using all relevant MeSH (medical subject heading) keywords. Articles were assessed for eligibility and independently reviewed by two reviewers for clinical features of AP, local complications, and mortality. Methodological quality of included studies was evaluated using the Murad tool.
RESULTS: A total of 212 articles were included, of which 168 (79.2%) were at high risk of bias. 320 cases of AP were identified. Viruses were the leading etiology of infection attributed AP (65.3%) followed by helminths (19.1%), and bacteria (12.5%). Protozoa, mycobacteria, and fungi accounted for the remaining 3.1% of cases. Mean age was 40.5 ± 18.4 years and M:F ratio was 1.94:1. Mortality occurred in 50 patients. Mortality rate was higher in the virus attributed AP patients than AP from other infectious etiologies (21.8% vs. 7.0%, p < 0.0005).
INTERPRETATION: Literature quality on infection attributed AP is limited. Virus attributed AP appears to carry a higher mortality than other etiologies of infection attributed AP.
Imam Z, Simons-Linares CR, Chahal P. Infectious causes of acute pancreatitis: A systematic review. Pancreatology. 2020 Oct;20(7):1312-1322. doi: 10.1016/j.pan.2020.08.018. Epub 2020 Aug 30. PMID: 32938554.