In the SARS-CoV-2 Pandora Pandemic: Can the Stance of Premorbid Intestinal Innate Immune System as Measured by Fecal Adnab-9 Binding of p87:Blood Ferritin, Yielding the FERAD Ratio, Predict COVID-19 Susceptibility and Survival in a Prospective Population Database?

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International Journal of Molecular Sciences


SARS-CoV-2 severity predictions are feasible, though individual susceptibility is not. The latter prediction allows for planning vaccination strategies and the quarantine of vulnerable targets. Ironically, the innate immune response (InImS) is both an antiviral defense and the potential cause of adverse immune outcomes. The competition for iron has been recognized between both the immune system and invading pathogens and expressed in a ratio of ferritin divided by p87 (as defined by the Adnab-9 ELISA stool-binding optical density, minus the background), known as the FERAD ratio. Associations with the FERAD ratio may allow predictive modeling for the susceptibility and severity of disease. We evaluated other potential COVID-19 biomarkers prospectively. Patients with PCR+ COVID-19 tests (Group 1; n = 28) were compared to three other groups. In Group 2 (n = 36), and 13 patients displayed COVID-19-like symptoms but had negative PCR or negative antibody tests. Group 3 (n = 90) had no symptoms and were negative when routinely PCR-tested before medical procedures. Group 4 (n = 2129) comprised a pool of patients who had stool tests and symptoms, but their COVID-19 diagnoses were unknown; therefore, they were chosen to represent the general population. Twenty percent of the Group 4 patients (n = 432) had sufficient data to calculate their FERAD ratios, which were inversely correlated with the risk of COVID-19 in the future. In a case report of a neonate, we studied three biomarkers implicated in COVID-19, including p87, Src (cellular-p60-sarcoma antigen), and Abl (ABL-proto-oncogene 2). The InImS of the first two were positively correlated. An inverse correlation was found between ferritin and lysozyme in serum (





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