Does Losing 5-7% of Prediabetic Body Weight from a Diabetes Prevention Program decrease Cardiovascular Risks?

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Spartan Medical Research Journal


INTRODUCTION: According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), one-third of adults have prediabetes (i.e., at risk for developing type 2 diabetes), a leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) focuses on lifestyle modifications to help participants lose 5-7% of their body weight and prevent Type 2 Diabetes. The purpose of this community-based pilot study was to investigate how successful completion of the DPP might be associated with decreases in body weight and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risks.

METHODS: Single-site, prospective cohort study. The DPP was implemented at the Farmington Village Family Practice Clinic and delivered virtually via Zoom from January 2020 through December 2020. During the first six months, participants met weekly for one hour. In the remaining six months, monthly sessions were held for one hour. Each session began with a private weigh-in followed by a uniquely designed lesson plan. A total of 14 prediabetic patients, based on hemoglobin A1c (A1c), fasting blood glucose levels, or diabetic risk calculator scores, were enrolled. For analyses, data concerning body mass index (BMI), smoking status, anti-hypertensive medications, age, race, sex, A1c, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were measured at baseline, six and 12 months. These parameters were used to calculate composite ASCVD risk percentages based on the 2013 Risk Calculator from the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology.

RESULTS: Using a series of Wilcoxon Matched Signed Rank Pair T test procedures, initial base-to six-month analyses showed a statistically significant improvement in ASCVD risk scores (p < 0.01), BMI (p < 0.01), HDL (p < 0.01), estimated weekly minutes of physical activity (p =< 0.01), and total cholesterol (p = 0.048) levels. In addition, base-to-12-month differences for ASCVD, BMI, HDL and physical activity outcomes remained statistically significant.

DISCUSSION: After completion of the DPP program, both initial (base to six month) as well as follow up (base to 12-month) statistically significant improvements in ASCVD, HDL, BMI, physical activity levels, and total cholesterol were observed.

CONCLUSIONS: These pilot study results are promising and consistent with the reduction of cardiovascular risk factors. These findings support the value of a structured, evidence-based educational curriculum focused on nonpharmacologic intervention to decrease weight loss and ASCVD risk scores for prediabetes adults.





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