Examining D-dimer and Empiric Anti-coagulation in COVID-19-Related Thrombosis.
Objective Thrombosis is thought to occur frequently in the setting of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We aimed to elucidate the relationship between macro/microvascular thrombosis, D-dimer levels, and empiric anticoagulation in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods This was an exploratory prospective, single-site, observational study. Adult emergency department patients with COVID-19 requiring hospitalization received a point-of-care lower extremity venous duplex ultrasound. The primary endpoint was thromboembolism and associated D-dimer level. Secondary endpoints included rates of micro and macro thrombotic complications as well as empiric anticoagulant use. Results Between January 13th and April 12th 2021, 52 patients were enrolled. Median D-dimer at presentation was 650 ng/mL (range 250-10,000 ng/mL) among patients with negative duplex studies. During hospitalization, 18 patients underwent 20 additional studies assessing for venous thromboembolism (VTE). These studies yielded one deep vein thrombosis (DVT) diagnosis. Among patients with negative studies median D-dimer was 1,246 ng/mL (range 329-10,000 ng/mL). Two patients experienced microvascular complications. Seven patients were started on empiric full dose anticoagulation. Conclusion While VTE remains a major concern amongst patients with COVID-19, the normal D-dimer cut off of >500 ng/mL likely should not be used to initiate further VTE workup. Additionally, moderately elevated D-dimer did not correlate strongly with microvascular complications and may not be relevant in the decision to initiate empiric anticoagulation.
Johnson SE, Pai E, Voroba A, Chen NW, Bahl A. Examining D-dimer and empiric anti-coagulation in COVID-19-related thrombosis. Cureus. 2022 Jul 15;14(7):e26883. doi: 10.7759/cureus.26883. PMID: 35978762.