Management of Factor Xa inhibitor-associated life-threatening major hemorrhage: A retrospective multi-center analysis.

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BACKGROUND: Factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors, used for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism treatment and prevention, are the dominant non-Vitamin K oral anticoagulants on the market. While major bleeding may be less common with these agents compared to warfarin, it is always a risk, and little has been published on the most serious bleeding scenarios. This study describes a cohort of patients with FXa inhibitor-associated life-threatening bleeding events, their clinical characteristics, interventions and outcomes.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective, 5-center review of FXa inhibitor-treated major bleeding patients. Investigators identified potential cases by cross-referencing ICD-9/10 codes for hemorrhage with medication lists. Investigators selected cases they deemed to require immediate reversal of coagulopathy, and reviewed charts for characteristics, reversal strategies and other interventions, and outcomes.

RESULTS: A total of 56 charts met the inclusion criteria for the retrospective cohort, including 29 (52%) gastrointestinal bleeds (GIB), 19 (34%) intracranial hemorrhages (ICH) and 8 (14%) others. Twenty-four (43%) patients received various factor or plasma products, and the remainder received supportive care. Thirty-day mortality was 21% (n=12). Re-anticoagulation within 30-days occurred in 23 (41%) patients. Thromboembolic events (TEEs) occurred in 6 (11%) patients. No differences were observed in outcomes by treatment strategy.

CONCLUSIONS: This cohort of FXa inhibitor-associated major bleeding scenarios deemed appropriate for acute anticoagulant reversal illustrates the variable approaches in the absence of a specific reversal agent.