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The four principles of bioethics described by Beauchamp and Childress are beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice, and autonomy. Two definitions of autonomy are very commonly used: rational autonomy, which refers to a patient making decisions based on their own beliefs and customs, and relational autonomy, which refers to shared decision making with the input of a patient’s close trusted individuals. Beauchamp and Childress described autonomous actions as those with intention, understanding, and lack of controlling factors. A fourth component that is sometimes included is authenticity, or making decisions true to one’s self. The primary goal of this study is to determine whether a trend exists for the inclusion of authenticity in rational or relational autonomy. A secondary goal is to determine whether a trend exists with the use of autonomy and the highest degree of the authors.

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Bioethics and Medical Ethics | Pediatrics


The Embark Capstone Colloquium at the Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester Hills, MI, May, 2023

Concern for Authenticity in Rational and Relational Autonomy