Clinical Impact of Atrial Fibrillation on Short-Term Outcomes and In-Hospital Mortality in Patients with Takotsubo Syndrome: A Propensity-Matched National Study

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© 2019 Elsevier Inc. Introduction: Takotsubo Syndrome (TS) patients are at high risk of developing atrial fibrillation. We sought to investigate the outcomes and economic impact of atrial fibrillation on TS patients utilizing the National Inpatient Sample. Methods: Patients with TS were identified in the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database between 2010 and 2014 using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM), and subsequently were divided into two groups, those with and without atrial fibrillation. The primary outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality in the two groups. Secondary outcomes were in-hospital complications. We also evaluated the length of hospital stay and the cost of hospitalization. Propensity score-matched analysis was performed to address potential confounding factors. Results: Among the study population, the prevalence of atrial fibrillation was 17.57%. After matching, the atrial fibrillation group had no significant increase of in-hospital mortality (OR: 1.13; 95% CI: 0.94–1.35, p = 0.211). However, atrial fibrillation patients were more likely to develop cardiac arrest and ventricular arrhythmias (OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.26–1.80, p < 0.0001), have higher rate of major cardiac complications when combined as a single endpoint in-hospital complication (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.04–1.29, p: 0.006), also they were more likely to stay longer in hospital (OR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.08–1.19, p < 0.0001), and have increased cost of hospitalization (OR: 1.13, 95% CI 1.07–1.20, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Atrial fibrillation does not increase in-hospital mortality in patients presenting with TS. However atrial fibrillation is associated with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias, length of stay, non-routine discharges and cost of hospitalization.

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