Advancements in Heart Failure Management: A Comprehensive Narrative Review of Emerging Therapies.

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title



Heart failure is a substantial and escalating global health challenge, affecting millions worldwide. This complex syndrome arises from diverse etiologies, encompassing ischemic heart disease, hypertension, valvular abnormalities, and cardiomyopathies. Heart failure is characterized by the heart's inability to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's metabolic demands, leading to debilitating symptoms, frequent hospitalizations, and high mortality rates. Traditionally, the management of Heart failure has focused on alleviating symptoms, reducing fluid retention, and enhancing cardiac contractility. These goals have been achieved through a combination of pharmacological therapies such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, and diuretics, often complemented by device-based interventions like implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy. However, despite these advances, the relentless progression of heart failure remains a significant clinical challenge. Neurohormonal activation, cardiac fibrosis, and cellular remodeling are just a few of the intricate processes contributing to the disease's progression. In recent years, researchers and clinicians have embarked on a quest to identify novel therapeutic approaches that address these underlying mechanisms. One such avenue of exploration involves the revolutionary field of gene therapy, with promising gene-editing techniques, such as CRISPR-Cas9, offering potential routes for correcting genetic mutations that contribute to heart failure. Additionally, regenerative medicine approaches, including stem cell therapy and tissue engineering, hold significant promise for repairing damaged cardiac tissue and restoring function. Furthermore, precision medicine initiatives have gained traction, aiming to tailor heart failure therapies to individual patient profiles, taking into account genetics, biomarkers, and comorbidities. Integrating artificial intelligence and machine learning in heart failure management has also enabled the development of predictive models for early intervention, risk stratification, and personalized treatment recommendations. This narrative review navigates the intricate landscape of emerging therapies for heart failure, emphasizing their potential to revolutionize the field by targeting the disease's fundamental mechanisms. By exploring these innovative approaches, we aspire to provide a comprehensive perspective on the evolving paradigm of heart failure management, fostering a hopeful outlook for patients and clinicians alike.





First Page






PubMed ID