Computed Tomography Aortic Valve Calcium Scoring in Patients With Bicuspid Aortic Valve Stenosis
Sex-specific thresholds of computed tomography (CT)–derived aortic valve calcification (AVC) or AVC density (AVCd) to identify severe aortic stenosis (AS) have been established in populations that consisted mainly of Caucasians with a tricuspid aortic valve. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy (i.e., sensitivity and specificity) of previously established thresholds to identify severe AS in patients with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) and according to ethnicity: Caucasian vs. Asian.
We built a multicenter registry of echocardiographic and CT data collected in BAV patients with at least mild AS and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction from 7 different centers. Anatomic severity of AS obtained by CT-derived AVC and AVCd was compared to hemodynamic severity of AS obtained by echocardiography.
Among 485 BAV patients (60% men, 73% Asians), the best thresholds of AVC and AVCd to identify severe AS in BAV patients were 2315 arbitrary units (AU) (sensitivity [Se]/specificity [Spe] = 82/78%) in men, 1103 AU (Se/Spe = 80/82%) in women, and 561 AU/cm2 (Se/Spe = 86/91%) in men, and 301 AU/cm2 (Se/Spe = 83/82%) in women, respectively. According to ethnicity, thresholds for severe AS in Caucasian patients were, respectively, in men and women: 2208 AU (Se/Spe = 83/83%) and 1230 AU (Se/Spe = 87/82%) for AVC and 474 AU/cm2 (Se/Spe = 88/83%) and 358 AU/cm2 (Se/Spe = 80/82%) for AVCd. In Asian patients, they were 2582 AU (Se/Spe = 76/78%) and 924 AU (Se/Spe = 84/80%) for AVC and 640 AU/cm2 (Se/Spe = 82/89%) and 255 AU/cm2 (Se/Spe = 86/80%) for AVCd.
The optimal thresholds to identify hemodynamically severe AS in BAV patients are similar in Caucasians but appear to be higher in Asian men, compared with thresholds previously reported in tricuspid aortic valve patients. Nonetheless, the thresholds currently proposed in the guidelines have good accuracy and can be applied in BAV patients to confirm AS severity.
Shen M, Oh, JK, Guzzetti E, Singh GK, Pawade T, Tastet L, et al. [Abbas AE, Mando R]. Computed tomography aortic valve calcium scoring in patients with bicuspid aortic valve stenosis. Struct Heart. 2022 Apr;6(1):100027. doi:10.1016/j.shj.2022.100027.