Diaphragmatic Pacing as an Initial Presentation of Delayed Ventricular Lead Perforation.
The Journal of innovations in cardiac rhythm management
Ventricular lead perforation is an infrequent and potentially fatal complication of pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators that typically presents shortly following device implantation. Delayed lead perforations occurring 1 month after implantation are not widely reported and can have a wide range of presentations ranging from asymptomatic to potentially fatal cardiac tamponade. We describe a case of successful percutaneous lead extraction and revision in a patient who presented 9 months following implantation with an active fixation right ventricular pacing lead with apical perforation. Perforation was suspected when device interrogation showed ventricular sensing without ventricular capture, but with diaphragm stimulation. After an initial X-ray and transthoracic echocardiogram failed to detect it, computed tomography angiography confirmed the myocardial perforation. This case demonstrates the importance of recognizing such a complication following cardiac implantable electronic device implantation regardless of the timeline of presentation. It also serves to highlight the importance of clinical suspicion and awareness of the limitations of imaging for perforation. Transvenous percutaneous lead extraction and revision remains a favored approach due to reduced patient trauma when compared to the open surgical approach.
Madanat L, Shah K, Bloomingdale R, Williamson BD. Diaphragmatic Pacing as an initial presentation of delayed ventricular lead perforation. J Innov Card Rhythm Manag. 2022 May 15;13(5):5004-5008. doi: 10.19102/icrm.2022.130504. PMID: 35655806.