Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and COVID-19: patients, comorbidities, and therapies.
American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology
On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization declared coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a pandemic, and the reality of the situation has finally caught up to the widespread reach of the disease. The presentation of the disease is highly variable, ranging from asymptomatic carriers to critical COVID-19. The availability of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors may reportedly increase the susceptibility and/or disease progression of COVID-19. Comorbidities and risk factors have also been noted to increase COVID-19 susceptibility. In this paper, we hereby review the evidence pertaining to ACE2's relationship to common comorbidities, risk factors, and therapies associated with the susceptibility and severity of COVID-19. We also highlight gaps of knowledge that require further investigation. The primary comorbidities of respiratory disease, cardiovascular disease, renal disease, diabetes, obesity, and hypertension had strong evidence. The secondary risk factors of age, sex, and race/genetics had limited-to-moderate evidence. The tertiary factors of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers had limited-to-moderate evidence. Ibuprofen and thiazolidinediones had limited evidence.
Pathangey G, Fadadu PP, Hospodar AR, Abbas AE. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 and COVID-19: patients, comorbidities, and therapies. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2021 Mar 1;320(3):L301-L330. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00259.2020. Epub 2020 Nov 25. PMID: 33237815; PMCID: PMC7938645.