Clinical risk factors and atherosclerotic plaque extent to define risk for major events in patients without obstructive coronary artery disease: The long-term coronary computed tomography angiography CONFIRM registry
European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Aims: In patients without obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), we examined the prognostic value of risk factors and atherosclerotic extent.
Methods and results: Patients from the long-term CONFIRM registry without prior CAD and without obstructive (≥50%) stenosis were included. Within the groups of normal coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) (N = 1849) and non-obstructive CAD (N = 1698), the prognostic value of traditional clinical risk factors and atherosclerotic extent (segment involvement score, SIS) was assessed with Cox models. Major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were defined as all-cause mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or late revascularization. In total, 3547 patients were included (age 57.9 ± 12.1 years, 57.8% male), experiencing 460 MACE during 5.4 years of follow-up. Age, body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes were the clinical variables associated with increased MACE risk, but the magnitude of risk was higher for CCTA defined atherosclerotic extent; adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for SIS >5 was 3.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.3-4.9) while HR for diabetes and hypertension were 1.7 (95% CI 1.3-2.2) and 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.7), respectively. Exclusion of revascularization as endpoint did not modify the results. In normal CCTA, presence of ≥1 traditional risk factors did not worsen prognosis (log-rank P = 0.248), while it did in non-obstructive CAD (log-rank P = 0.025). Adjusted for SIS, hypertension and diabetes predicted MACE risk in non-obstructive CAD, while diabetes did not increase risk in absence of CAD (P-interaction = 0.004).
Conclusion: Among patients without obstructive CAD, the extent of CAD provides more prognostic information for MACE than traditional cardiovascular risk factors. An interaction was observed between risk factors and CAD burden, suggesting synergistic effects of both.
van Rosendael AR, Bax AM, Smit JM, van den Hoogen IJ, Ma X, Al'Aref S, Achenbach S, Al-Mallah MH, Andreini D, Berman DS, Budoff MJ, Cademartiri F, Callister TQ, Chang HJ, Chinnaiyan K, Chow BJW, Cury RC, DeLago A, Feuchtner G, Hadamitzky M, Hausleiter J, Kaufmann PA, Kim YJ, Leipsic JA, Maffei E, Marques H, de Araújo Gonçalves P, Pontone G, Raff GL, Rubinshtein R, Villines TC, Gransar H, Lu Y, Peña JM, Lin FY, Shaw LJ, Min JK, Bax JJ. Clinical risk factors and atherosclerotic plaque extent to define risk for major events in patients without obstructive coronary artery disease: the long-term coronary computed tomography angiography CONFIRM registry. Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2020 May 1;21(5):479-488. doi: 10.1093/ehjci/jez322. PMID: 32065624; PMCID: PMC7821703.