Supra-systemic pulmonary hypertension after complicated percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty: a case report and review of literature.
BACKGROUND: The World Symposium of Pulmonary Hypertension in 2018, updated the definition of pulmonary hypertension (PH) as mean pulmonary artery pressures (PAP) > 20 mmHg. Pulmonary venous hypertension secondary to left-heart disease, constitutes the most common cause of PH, and the determination of a co-existent pre-capillary (primary) PH becomes paramount, particularly at the moment of evaluating and managing patients with heart failure. Pulmonary artery pressures above the systemic pressures define supra-systemic PH and generally leads to frank right ventricular failure and high mortality.
CASE PRESENTATION: We present the perioperative management of a patient with rheumatic mitral valve disease, initially found to have severe PH due to pulmonary venous hypertension, who underwent percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty complicated with mitral chordae rupture, severe mitral regurgitation and supra-systemic PH. Multiple medical therapies and an intra-aortic balloon pump were used as means of non-surgical management of this complication.
CONCLUSIONS: This case report illustrates the perioperative implications of combined pre- and post-capillary PH and supra-systemic PH, as this has not been widely discussed in previous literature. A thorough literature review of the clinical characteristics of PH, methods to determine co-existent pre- and post-capillary PH components, as well as concomitant right ventricular failure is presented. Severe PH has known detrimental effects on the hemodynamic status of patients, which can ultimately lead to a decrease in effective cardiac output and poor tissue perfusion.
Navas-Blanco JR, Miranda J, Gonzalez V, Mohammed A, Aljure OD. Supra-systemic pulmonary hypertension after complicated percutaneous mitral balloon valvuloplasty: a case report and review of literature. BMC Anesthesiol. 2021 Oct 27;21(1):258. doi: 10.1186/s12871-021-01481-9. PMID: 34706655.