Metabolomic prediction of endometrial cancer
© 2017, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Introduction: Endometrial cancer (EC) is associated with metabolic disturbances including obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. Identifying metabolite biomarkers for EC detection has a crucial role in reducing morbidity and mortality. Objective: To determine whether metabolomic based biomarkers can detect EC overall and early-stage EC. Methods: We performed NMR and mass spectrometry based metabolomic analyses of serum in EC cases versus controls. A total of 46 early-stage (FIGO stages I–II) and 10 late-stage (FIGO stages III–IV) EC cases constituted the study group. A total of 60 unaffected control samples were used. Patients and controls were divided randomly into a discovery group (n = 69) and an independent validation group (n = 47). Predictive algorithms based on biomarkers and demographic characteristics were generated using logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 181 metabolites were evaluated. Extensive changes in metabolite levels were noted in the EC versus the control group. The combination of C14:2, phosphatidylcholine with acyl-alkyl residue sum C38:1 (PCae C38:1) and 3-hydroxybutyric acid had an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) (95% CI) = 0.826 (0.706–0.946) and a sensitivity = 82.6%, and specificity = 70.8% for EC overall. For early EC prediction: BMI, C14:2 and PC ae C40:1 had an AUC (95% CI) = 0.819 (0.689–0.95) and a sensitivity = 72.2% and specificity = 79.2% in the validation group. Conclusions: EC is characterized by significant perturbations in important cellular metabolites. Metabolites accurately detected early-stage EC cases and EC overall which could lead to the development of non-invasive biomarkers for earlier detection of EC and for monitoring disease recurrence.