Update on Diagnosis and Treatment of Adult Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis.
Ther Clin Risk Manag
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare pulmonary surfactant homeostasis disorder resulting in buildup of lipo-proteinaceous material within the alveoli. PAP is classified as primary (autoimmune and hereditary), secondary, congenital and unclassifiable type based on the underlying pathogenesis. PAP has an insidious onset and can, in some cases, progress to severe respiratory failure. Diagnosis is often secured with bronchoalveolar lavage in the setting of classic imaging findings. Recent insights into genetic alterations and autoimmune mechanisms have provided newer diagnostics and treatment options. In this review, we discuss the etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment options available and emerging for PAP.
Iftikhar H, Nair GB, Kumar A. Update on Diagnosis and Treatment of Adult Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2021 Aug 10;17:701-710. doi: 10.2147/TCRM.S193884. PMID: 34408422; PMCID: PMC8364424.