Identification of risk for neonatal haemolysis

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©2018 Foundation Acta Pædiatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd Aim: To identify neonates at risk of haemolytic hyperbilirubinaemia through near-concurrent measurements of total serum/plasma bilirubin (TB) or transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) and end-tidal breath carbon monoxide (CO), corrected for ambient CO (ETCOc), an index of bilirubin production and haemolysis. Methods: Paired TB/TcB (mg/dL) and ETCOc (ppm) measurements were obtained in newborns (n = 283) at 20 to <60 hours of age in five nurseries. TB/TcB values were assigned TB/TcB percentile risk values using the Bhutani hour-specific nomogram. In infants having two serial TB/TcB measurements (n = 76), TB rate of rise (ROR, mg/dL/h) was calculated. Results: For the entire cohort (n = 283), 67.1% and 32.9% had TB/TcB<75th and ≥75th percentile, respectively. TB/TcB (5.79 ± 1.84 vs 9.14 ± 2.25 mg/dL) and ETCOc (1.61 ± 0.45 vs 2.02 ± 1.35 ppm, p = 0.0002) were different between the groups. About 36.6% of infants with TB/TcB ≥75th percentile had ETCOc ≥ 2.0 ppm. In the subcohort of infants with serial TB/TcB measurements (n = 76), 44.7% and 55.3% had TB/TcB<75th and ≥75th percentile, respectively. TB/TcB (5.28 ± 1.97 vs 9.53 ± 2.78 mg/dL), ETCOc (1.72 ± 0.48 vs 2.38 ± 1.89 ppm, p = 0.05) and TB ROR (0.011 ± 0.440 vs 0.172 ± 0.471 mg/dL/h) were different between the groups. Conclusion: The combined use of TB/TcB percentile risk assessments and ETCOc measurements can identify infants with haemolytic hyperbilirubinaemia. The addition of TB ROR can identify those infants with elimination disorders.

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