Multidrug-Resistant Organisms in the Setting of Periprosthetic Joint Infection-Diagnosis, Prevention, and Treatment.

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BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a rare yet challenging problem in total hip and knee arthroplasties. The management of PJI remains difficult primarily due to the evolution of resistance by the infecting organisms.

METHODS: This review profiles acquired mechanisms of bacterial resistance and summarizes established and emerging techniques in PJI diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.

RESULTS: New techniques in PJI diagnosis and prevention continue to be explored. Antibiotics combined with 1 or 2-stage revision are associated with the higher success rates and remain the mainstay of treatment.

CONCLUSION: With higher prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms, novel antibiotic implant and wound care materials, improved methods for organism identification, and well-defined organism-specific treatment algorithms are needed to optimize outcomes of PJI.