Phase III Randomized Trial of Bisphosphonates as Adjuvant Therapy in Breast Cancer: S0307.
Journal of the National Cancer Institute
BACKGROUND: Adjuvant bisphosphonates, when given in a low-estrogen environment, can decrease breast cancer recurrence and death. Treatment guidelines include recommendations for adjuvant bisphosphonates in postmenopausal patients. SWOG/Alliance/Canadian Cancer Trials Group/ECOG-ACRIN/NRG Oncology study S0307 compared the efficacy of three bisphosphonates in early-stage breast cancer.
METHODS: Patients with stage I-III breast cancer were randomly assigned to 3 years of intravenous zoledronic acid, oral clodronate, or oral ibandronate. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS) with overall survival as a secondary outcome. All statistical tests were two-sided.
RESULTS: A total of 6097 patients enrolled. Median age was 52.7 years. Prior to being randomly assigned, 73.2% patients indicated preference for oral vs intravenous formulation. DFS did not differ across arms in a log-rank test (P = .49); 5-year DFS was 88.3% (zoledronic acid: 95% confidence interval [CI] = 86.9% to 89.6%), 87.6% (clodronate: 95% CI = 86.1% to 88.9%), and 87.4% (ibandronate: 95% CI = 85.6% to 88.9%). Additionally, 5-year overall survival did not differ between arms (log rank P = .50) and was 92.6% (zoledronic acid: 95% CI = 91.4% to 93.6%), 92.4% (clodronate: 95% CI = 91.2% to 93.5%), and 92.9% (ibandronate: 95% CI = 91.5% to 94.1%). Bone as first site of recurrence did not differ between arms (P = .93). Analyses based on age and tumor subtypes showed no treatment differences. Grade 3/4 toxicity was 8.8% (zoledronic acid), 8.3% (clodronate), and 10.5% (ibandronate). Osteonecrosis of the jaw was highest for zoledronic acid (1.26%) compared with clodronate (0.36%) and ibandronate (0.77%).
CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of differences in efficacy by type of bisphosphonate, either in overall analysis or subgroups. Despite an increased rate of osteonecrosis of the jaw with zoledronic acid, overall toxicity grade differed little across arms. Given that patients expressed preference for oral formulation, efforts to make oral agents available in the United States should be considered.
Gralow JR, Barlow WE, Paterson AHG, M'iao JL, Lew DL, Stopeck AT, Hayes DF, Hershman DL, Schubert MM, Clemons M, Van Poznak CH, Dees EC, Ingle JN, Falkson CI, Elias AD, Messino MJ, Margolis JH, Dakhil SR, Chew HK, Dammann KZ, Abrams JS, Livingston RB, Hortobagyi GN. Phase III Randomized Trial of Bisphosphonates as Adjuvant Therapy in Breast Cancer: S0307. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2020 Jul 1;112(7):698-707. doi: 10.1093/jnci/djz215. PMID: 31693129; PMCID: PMC7357327.