Viral-Attributed Acute Pancreatitis: A Systematic Review.
Infectious etiologies are rare cause of acute pancreatitis (AP). We sought to investigate the frequency of viral-attributed AP (VIAP) and describe its natural course and clinical features. Comprehensive review of PubMed and EMBASE in English until December 31, 2019, was performed. AP diagnosis and severity were defined per the Revised Atlanta Classification. Viral infections were diagnosed by serology and/or histology. A diagnosis of viral infection, with a concurrent AP diagnosis, a temporal resolution of both entities, and the attempt to exclude the most common etiologies of AP defined VIAP. Two independent reviewers reviewed eligible publications. Bias risk was assessed with the Murad tool. A total of 209 cases identified in 128 publications met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 38.9 ± 1.28 years. Male-to-female ratio was 2.2:1, and 28% of patients were immunocompromised. Viral hepatitis (A, B, C, D and E) was the most common virus and accounted for 34.4% of cases, followed by coxsackie and echoviruses (14.8%), hemorrhagic fever viruses (12.4%), CMV (12.0%), VZV (10.5%), mumps and measles (3.8%), primary HIV infection (3.8%), HSV (1.9%), EBV (1.9%), and the remainder of cases (2.9%) attributed to adenovirus, influenza H1N1, and multiple viruses. Severity of AP was: 43.1% mild, 11.7% moderately severe, 32.4% severe. Death occurred in 42 (20.1%) patients. A significant portion of VIAP patients were immunocompromised (28.0%) and accounted for 71.4% of mortality cases. Mortality was higher than that reported for AP from other etiologies in the literature.